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The following technical bulletins were published by AERA.
 INJECTOR SLEEVE INSTALLATION PROCEDURE FOR VOLVO TD 45
                                         Injector Sleeve Installation Procedure On
                                        Volvo D45, TD45, D45B & TB45B Engines

The AERA Technical Committee offers the following procedure for installing Injector Sleeves On Volvo D45, TD45, D45B & TB45B engines. Volvo offers the following procedure to correctly install these injector sleeves. 

1)	With the old injector sleeve removed from the cylinder head, make sure that the sealing area in the cylinder head is free of rust and carbon deposits. 
2)	Check that the pressing drift, SVO6420 runs freely in the new injector sleeve and the steel ring. Polish off any burrs to avoid any difficulties when the pressing drift is removed. 
3)	Position the steel ring and the copper sleeve on the pressing drift and measure the clearance between the steel ring and the copper sleeve. Clearance should be .020-.040". 
4)	Oil the upper sealing ring for the copper sleeve and push it down into the cylinder head. 
5)	Position the lower sealing ring on the copper sleeve. Apply a thin coat of anti-corrosion fluid on the outside of the copper sleeve. 
6)	Position the steel ring and insert pressing drift down through the steel ring and the copper sleeve.  
7)	Check that the pressing tool, SVO6422 is positioned parallel to the cylinder head correctly according to the information below. 
D45 & TD45		Figures 1-4
D45B & TD45B	Figures 5-6
8)	Press down the steel ring by tightening the pressing tool spindle to a torque of 50 ft/lbs.
9)	Slacken the spindle and remove pressing tool & pressing drift. 
10)	Insert pressing drift, SVO6402 through the steel ring against the copper sleeve. Check that the drift moves freely in the sleeve. Position pressing tool, SVO6422 according to figures listed above. 
11)	Press down the copper sleeve by tightening the spindle of the pressing to a torque of 43 ft/lbs. This operation is done in two stages, first with the SVO6420 and then the SVO6402 in order to obtain the correct pressing force on the copper sleeve. This will also obtain correct clearance between the steel ring and the copper sleeve, which is .004-.018".
12)	Remove the tools and check clearance which should be .004-.018". This is done using tool E1013 as shown if Figure 7.
13)	Apply a thin coat of anti-corrosion fluid on the injector and inside of the copper sleeve and install the injector. Fit the yoke and the nut and tighten to 37 ft/lbs.

                                                                        The AERA Technical Committee
 CYL HEAD OIL GALLERY MODIFICATION
                            Cylinder Head Oil Gallery Modification On
                                  1976-85 Volvo 2.1 & 2.3L Engines

AERA members have reported a cylinder head oil gallery modification for Volvo 2.1& 2.3L engines. To enhance upper engine oiling, simply increase the diameter of the oil gallery hole to .563 (14 mm). To do so, requires the removal of the cylinder head and a drilling operation.

This engine design may allow sludge to accumulate in the oil gallery over a period of time if poor oil maintenance exists. To reduce the possibility of a seized camshaft from lack of lubrication at start-up, the following modification should be made to the cylinder head.

      1. Remove cylinder head and locate the oil gallery feed hole on
      the head gasket surface as shown in illustration below.

      2. Obtain a .563 (14 mm) drill, and drill perpendicularly down
      a distance of 1.770 (45 mm).

      3. Do all other machine operations and clean thoroughly before
      placing back in service.

      4. Clean crankcase ventilation system and verify those
      components are the manufacturer's current design.

                                                                            The AERA Technical Committee
 CRANKSHAFT/CAMSHAFT SEAL OIL LEAKS
            Volvo Crankshaft/Camshaft Seal Oil Leaks

Possible oil leaks around the crankshaft, camshaft or other engine gaskets may be due to a clogged flame trap in the PCV system.  This does not seem to happen on turbocharged models.

The plastic Y-shaped flame trap is located in the PCV apparatus and may become clogged if engine oil is infrequently changed. Low grade or inexpensive oil may also cause stoppage which allows  internal crankcase pressure to build, thus forcing an oil leak.  In some cases, the pressure will force the oil dipstick to pop out.

A clogged flame trap should either be cleaned or replaced, says Volvo, and normal maintenance calls for routine cleaning of the trap every 15,000 miles.

                                                                        The AERA Technical Committee
 CYLINDER HEAD TORQUE ON D24 DIESEL ENGINES
                                   Cylinder Head Torque Procedure On
                                           Volvo D24 Diesel Engines

Whenever the cylinder head gasket is replaced on the subject engines, it is important to follow a three state torquing procedure to properly seat the head.

To torque ALL the head bolts, it is necessary to remove the vacuum pump and plunger before starting the retorquing procedure.

With the engine cold, follow the bolt sequence shown below.

     Stage 1 - Torque the bolts to 40 N·m (30 ft. lbs.)

     Stage 2 - Torque the bolts to 70 N·m (52 ft. lbs.)

     Stage 3 - Torque the bolts to 90 N·m (66 ft. lbs.)

Start the engine and allow it to reach operating temperature, then retorque to 85 N·m (62 ft. lbs.).  Do not loosen the bolts before retorquing.

To complete the procedure, the head bolts must be retorqued after 600 to 1200 miles again to 85 N·m (62 ft. lbs.).

                                                                          The AERA Technical Committee
 REVISED CONNECTING ROD CAP SCREWS
                                        Revised Connecting Rod Cap Screws For
                                           1991-98 Volvo 2.4L Code 57 Engines

The AERA Technical Committee offers the following information regarding a revised connecting rod cap screw for 1991-98 Volvo 2.4L Code 57 engines. This change occurred in the end of 1997 engine production and all 1998 engines have the revised cap screw.

A new screw for the engine connecting rod cap screw was introduced in model year 1998 for all S70/V70/C70 gasoline engines. The new screw has a closer pitch of thread. At the end of model year 1997 production approximately 800 engines were manufactured with this new type of screw. It is therefore important to check which type of screw the engine is equipped with if an engine from a model year 1997 car is being renovated, and whether the screw needs to be replaced. It is also possible older engine connecting rods have been placed into a 1997-98 engine.

When replacing the screw, it must be replaced with the same type of screw, in other words with the same pitch of thread. This bulletin describes how to spot the difference between the old and the new type of screw, and within which engine serial numbers mixed screw types are to be found.

Screw type                		    Engine serial number       	   Notes

Only older screws         		    -1051765
Mixed old and new screws    	1051766 - 1052536             	A) see below
Only older screws             	1052537 - 1059933
Mixed old and new screws   	1059934 - 1059984            	B) see below
Only new screws               	1059985-
A)	The following engines have Revised screw: 
1051766-1051771, 1051778-1051783, 1051796-1051801, 1051814-1051819, 
1051844-1052225, 1052240-1052245, 1052252-1052257, 1052264-1052269,
1052276-1052281, 1052288-1052293, 1052300-1052305, 1052312-1052317, 
1052324-1052329, 1052336-1052341, 1052348-1052365, 1052384-1052389, 
1052396-1052401, 1052420-1052425, 1052438-1052443, 1052462-1052467, 
1052480-1052497, 1052504-1052536
B)	The following engines have Revised screw: 
1059934-1059935, 1059942-1059947, 1059954-1059959, 1059966-1059977
 REVISED CONNECTING ROD
                                          Revised Connecting Rods On
                                       1988-89 Volvo 2.3L B230 Engines

AERA members have reported connecting rod failures in 1988-89 Volvo B230 engines.  Rod failures include both bending and actual breakage.  Because of  the frequency of these failures, Volvo has redesigned the connecting rod for additional strength (See illustration).  Engines manufactured as of  the 1990 model year use the revised connecting rod.

The revised rod features a thicker beam and has increased in weight by 40 grams.  The revised rod should only be installed in complete sets of four, Volvo Part #0271451-7 (four matched rods). Substituting a revised rod, Volvo Part #3531260-2, for the former design will cause an out-of-balance condition and possible engine failure.

                                                                        The AERA Technical Committee
 CYLINDER BLOCK & CRANKSHAFT CHANGES
                                   Cylinder Block & Crankshaft Change On
                                           Volvo 1988 2.3L B230 Engines

Volvo Motors has changed the cylinder block and crankshaft on 1988 and later 2.3L B230 engines.  The changes are related to the crankshaft main journal size and thrust location.  Volvo also identifies 1988 and newer blocks by stamping K externally on the front timing case.

Crankshaft main journal diameters have increased in diameter to 2.4798-2.4803 (62.987-63.000 mm).  The thrust bearing has been relocated to the rear main and uses a flanged type bearing.  The thrust length on the crankshaft was also increased to a length of 1.398 (35.5 mm).  Connecting rod journals remain unchanged at 1.9285-1.9293 (48.984-49.005 mm) in diameter. 

Revising the crankshaft required the block main bearing bores be increased to 2.6378-2.6383 (67.000-67.013 mm) in diameter.


Years     Main Journal   Rod Journal    Thrust       Main Brg. 
Used      Diameter       Diameter       Location     Housing
                                        & Length     Bore
----------------------------------------------------------------
1985-87   2.1648-        1.9285-        1.142       2.3228-
          2.1654        1.9293        @ #3         2.3236

1988-92   2.4798-        1.9285-        1.398       2.6378-
          2.4803        1.9293        @ #5         2.6383

                                                                         The AERA Technical Committee
 REVISED CONNECTING ROD BOLT FOR 3.0L VOLVO
                                          Revised Connecting Rod Bolt For
                                                1992-99 Volvo 3.0L Engines

The AERA Technical Committee offers the following information regarding revised connecting rod bolts for 1992-99 Volvo 3.0L engines. During engine manufacturing in 1998, Volvo introduced a revised rod bolt, which incorporated a different thread pitch. Intermixing of the two different design bolts is not desired.  Note: Some service information references this engine as a 2.9L displacement.

These bolt designs are very similar and offer little visual identification where installed in production engines. The revised bolt has a closer pitch of thread. During the 1997 production year both bolt designs were used. It is important to note that both designs may be used but one design should be used within one engine.  

Identifying bolt types:

1.	Older bolts from the factory have M9 x 1.25 mm angle of thread and have no markings on the bolt head. Old bolts as replacement part (Part #1271900-1) have a circular stamp in the bolt head as shown below in Figure 1.
2.	Revised screws in production engines from the factory have closer M9 x 1.0 mm angle of thread and have no markings on the screw head. New screws as replacement part (Part #9125471-4) have a triangular stamp in the screw head as shown below in Figure 1.
 
A thread gauge should be used to check which type of screw is used. This may be required, as no markings were used on production bolts.  Volvo offers thread gauge M9 x 1.0 mm with Part #1158902-5 and thread gauge M9 x 1.25 mm with Part #1158901-7.
 

  FIGURE 1.
Older screw to left in illustration            REVISED screw to right in illustration

                                                                         The AERA Technical Committee